The following section describes pH adjustment and the different methods to neutralize pH ranges in solutions.
A brief review of the definition of pH, the pH scale, and some of the chemistry involved in pH Adjustment systems is provided below. For some this may be trivial, yet for many others this may be useful. The information provided below is typical of the background information we provide in our training classes / seminars.
By definition, pH is the measure of free hydrogen activity in water and can be expressed as:
In more practical terms (although not technically correct in all cases) pH is the measure of acidity or alkalinity of water. Measured on a scale of 0-14, solutions with a pH of less than 7.0 are acids while solutions with a pH of greater than 7.0 are bases. In very simple terms bases are used to neutralize acids, while acids are used to neutralize caustics (the term caustic and base, although not truly synonymous, are often used interchangeably). The by-products are normally salts (which may or may not be soluble) and water.